CATHERINE BOOTH – A Mãe do Exército (Portuguese Edition)


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Canjiquinha 1 Lady Isabel, what story is this That you made abolition? That you are the nice princess That finished with slavery? I am tired of that idle chat I am tired of that illusion M. Toni Vargas 2 In most European and US cities one can see young people from different ethnic backgrounds and genders carrying around a musical bow, or berimbau. Twenty years ago this would have inevitably raised questions over the purpose of that strange device, but today many people recognize it as the basic musical instrument of capoeira.

The use of an entire percussion orchestra shows that capoeira involves much more than mere physical exercise. Practitioners — typically between 16 and 35 years old — not only execute awkward movements to the rhythm of the orchestra, but also need to play these instruments, and to sing in Portuguese. Yet capoeira is much more than music and dance: Since adepts need to train hard in a wide range of bodily techniques and intellectual skills, it also constitutes a martial art and, according to some, a spiritual discipline. Capoeira furthermore provides a new identity, which is why it has become so important in our globalized world.

Over the last half century, the practice of capoeira has spread from some relatively limited constituencies, in terms of geography, class, gender and ethnicity, to an ever-growing number of adepts in Brazil. Googling for capoeira results in , hits. This might still be less than the results for aikido , , judo , , karate 1. In recognizing the link, a major company from Finland Nokia has made wide use of capoeira in its advertising. Capoeira is now seen as an integral part of the postmodern experience in globalized metropolises. Thus one of the new television channel indicators broadcast by the BBC in the United Kingdom features capoeira players on the roofs of London.

Capoeira has a fascinating history. Capoeiristas confronted Portuguese stick fighters in the streets and lapanese ju-jitsu champions in the ring. They were flogged, imprisoned, and deported to distant Atlantic islands because of their practice. The military, bureaucrats and the tourist industry tried and sometimes succeeded in co-opting them. Yet one of the reasons capoeira fascinates young people all over the world is that it still seems to epitomize resistance: One of the aims of this book is to show to what extent resistance was or was not a rhetorical device in capoeira history, and to question easy assumptions about the meaning of resistance.

History is paramount in contemporary capoeira practice. Not only do capoeira songs invoke famous players long dead and call to mind epic fights of the past, but they also refer to more embracing historical institutions, such as slavery and the resistance against it, wars fought by Brazilian soldiers, or any other episode that represented at some moment a landmark in popular memory.

As Greg Downey has pointed out: African or Brazilian; a fight disguised in dance or a dance which became a fight. The importance attributed to tradition, in particular to orally transmitted narratives, the role capoeira played and plays as a model of counter-hegemonic practice, the re-appropriation of the art by state institutions or by political activists pursuing their own agendas have all contributed to the establishment of powerful myths about capoeira history and the development of some master narratives. These all-pervasive discourses, in return, structure the perception of present-day practitioners and wider audiences.

From the s onward, the development of different modern styles generated even more heated controversies around the figures of their two founding fathers, the mestres teacher, master Bimba and Pastinha. Two conflicting master narratives again support divergent interpretations of the meaning of their innovations and, more generally, the modernization of cultural forms. Before examining the history of capoeira, one needs to be aware of these fundamental assumptions that guide capoeiristas, scholars and other social actors in their appreciation of capoeira history.

I will attempt to give a brief idea of how master narratives were constructed, by tracing their emergence within specific historical contexts and relating them to ongoing struggles over ethnic and national identity in Brazilian society, and, more recently, in a globalized context Chapter 1.

Capoeira, the black art of the male underdog, provides an important field where issues of race, class and gender are played out and renegotiated. Capoeira provides a prime example of this process and thus allows for a better understanding of what complex dynamics creolization can entail. Conceiving capoeira as a creole art of the diaspora also avoids the pitfall of classifying a colonial form with anachronistic labels such as African or Brazilian and to disentangle the conundrum of its roots.

I believe that we need to analyse the interaction between forms and context rather than searching for a genealogy of isolated elements of the art. The third chapter deals with the capoeiragem in Rio de Janeiro during the nineteenth century, practised by slaves and freedmen, but also by European migrants, and how its practice was affected by these changes. The contrast between these two regional variants of capoeira, and their distinct evolution, highlights the complex dynamics between formal aspects, social context and cultural meaning which allowed the development of elaborate rituals and bodily techniques.

This also allows one to question — without discarding it entirely — the mantra of capoeira as resistance and to assess the importance of co-optation in these formative periods. Chapters 5 and 6 look at the mestres who were paramount in the development of modern capoeira during the s and s, M. Pastinha, and the emergence of the Regional and Angola styles. The last chapter follows the spread of capoeira throughout Brazil and the Western world during the last four decades and discusses the significance of contemporary styles. A closer look at these developments shows how modernization of a popular tradition is never homogenous or monolithic, but fragmented and multi- faceted, according to the multiple agendas of the different social actors involved.

The examination of the recent worldwide dissemination of capoeira finally allows an insight into the cultural dynamics of globalization during the s. At a time when capoeira runs the risk of becoming a mere commodity for globalized consumers, and of being hijacked for all kinds of other purposes, I think it is important to show, against all essentialist simplifications, that the art is the result of a rich and complex history.

The awareness of the rich and contradictory texture of its traditions is necessary to avoid capoeira becoming a short-lived fashion that will disappear when it no longer fulfils the requirements of global markets, because it can provide inspiration for new strategies of resistance. The second escaped and the third, attempting to follow them, failed. Recaptured, he received the punishment proper for slaves [ Without weapons or munitions, the slaves turned warriors again using that sport born during the filthy nights of the slave huts, and the sport which had been disguised as dance was transformed into a fight, the fight of the men of the capoeira.

The passage illustrates how the history of capoeira is told by many instructors or reproduced in handouts and manuals. The circulation of capoeira myths is however far from being restricted to a close knit group of practitioners uninterested in historical research. On the contrary, this mixture of facts and fiction is frequently reproduced in magazine articles, books and even academic journals and dissertations, which makes it all the more interesting to examine.

A brief scrutiny of the core myths about capoeira history will allow us to illuminate some of the basic assumptions they rely on, and start our enquiry into the historical contexts in which they emerged. By myth I understand a rather simplistic view of some specific facet of capoeira history, which glosses over contradictory aspects and deliberately ignores the lack of evidence or even takes no notice of any contrary evidence that disproves what usually are essentialist claims.

In some cases fakes — when evidence and sources are deliberately manipulated to conform to pre-conceived ideas — are also part of the arsenal of myth formation. The myth of the remote origins appears under three variants, each of which provides support and legitimacy for conflicting master narratives of national or ethnic identity. The first version is that of its entirely Brazilian origins. As we are going to see in more detail, nationalist ideology helped to foster the myth of native Brazilians playing capoeira. In view of the fact that the term Tupi-Guaram was only coined by modem ethnologists long after the Tup!

A far greater number of practitioners claim that maroons runaway slaves invented capoeira.

Almost every book on capoeira history contains an initial chapter on slave resistance, where the heroic quilombos maroon settlements are always singled out for their fierce opposition to slave society. The romanticized image of maroons practising capoeira has dominated historical accounts of the art for the last half century. It circulates under two different variants, one emphasizing the African heritage of the maroons and the other their proximity to nature.

As we are going to see, however, this sentence was invented by a nationalist writer in the s and has been cited ever since. One can therefore hardly blame capoeira teachers like Areias, who only repeated in writing what everybody else had been reiterating for many years.

Academics sometimes take on board that myth, assuming that it derives from some kind of oral tradition. The attractiveness of the story is enhanced by the fact that it is quite plausible: Some kind of African inspired martial games probably existed among greater maroon settlements. Not one single contemporary source, however, has been found to confirm this hypothesis.

The last version of the tale of the remote origins attributes an entirely African origin to the art. In its most radical expression, it asserts rather bluntly that capoeira as such was practised in Angola. Transplanted to Brazil, it is supposed to have been performed without major alterations before spreading to the rest of the world: Yet despite these permanences, capoeira changed significantly over the last two centuries, and these transformations affected not only formal aspects and social context but also its cultural meaning.

Today the game is accompanied by a musical bow called berimbau.

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The instrument is thus sometimes added to the picture, transforming a formerly passive spectator into an additional musician. No later than the berimbau, as the lungungu came to be called in Brazil, was being used to fuel the capoeira martial art. This we know because Rugendas in an illustration shows two men in a roda, one doing the basic step, the ginga, at left, and the other, at right, apparently executing a step called queixada. They are in combat. Handclapping and a drum accompany their battle. But close examination of a man standing next to the drummer shows that he has a musical bow and is pulling open his shirt, probably to place the calabash-resonator of his instrument against his naked stomach in Kongo Angolan manner.

Moreover, the way in which such engravings were produced does not support the idea of the picture representing a moment prior to the full development of the game. I do not want to suggest that his engraving escapes stylization and a particular approach towards slave culture. Yet it would not have made much sense for Rugendas to exclude the berimbau , an exotic instrument that appears in a number of other nineteenth-century engravings.

However, the documents reduced to ashes represent but a tiny part of all archival records regarding slavery. As any student of history in Brazil knows, hundreds of thousands of documents documenting slavery do exist in Brazilian archives and many historians have been working with these sources over the last decades. Many practitioners claim that capoeira is played to music, because during the times of slavery it had to be disguised as a dance in order to fool the slave owners.

Unfortunately all the early sources on capoeira make quite clear that the masters were only too aware of the potential danger of capoeira practised by slaves. Another popular story explains that capoeira uses mainly foot kicks because slaves were chained together by their hands and had therefore only the feet left to use. Historical evidence, however, suggests that slaves had their feet in shackles to prevent them from running away, leaving their hands free to work.

What is the function of all these myths about the history of capoeira? As Roland Barthes asserted in his classical study: Myths are also paramount in the formation of identities. Myths supports the narrative of what communities or nations decide to remember and they are constructed in such ways that oblivion can be facilitated. It closes the gaps generated by ruptures and discontinuities or even creates the myth of the forgotten and the anonymous in such a way as to make them identifiable, to grant them an identity.

Capoeira became instrumental in the formation of national, regional and ethnic identities and in the interaction with these processes organized its own foundational myths and transcendental meanings. Deconstructing the myths about capoeira history can contribute to free the art with such a rich past and complex traditions from the rigidity that these versions of its origins and history impress on it, and that can turn its practice into a superficial performance of platitudes. If capoeira has allowed the construction of so many myths around it, this is due to the multiple ways in which it has acquired cultural significance in different historical contexts.

As with all other myths, the ones about Capoeira history only make sense within a wider social and cultural context. These myths are but the crystallized, quintessential form of pre- conceived ideas about the development of capoeira or history in general. A myth is one of several available resources to reinforce the attraction of a particular master narrative, supporting the latter through its apparent logic and naturalness. In the following chapters I hope to demonstrate that capoeira history is far more contradictory and ambiguous — more than some of its practitioners might like.

For the sake of analysis I distinguish six paradigmatic discourses or master narratives, and try to locate their emergence in specific historical contexts. This is not possible without simplification. Positions are often more nuanced than I will represent them here, and sometimes overlap, combining arguments from several narratives.

The analysis of these narratives hopefully will illuminate the relevance of some painstaking discussions considered in the subsequent chapters of this book. To reconstruct the various levels and types of discourses on capoeira that were elaborated by different social actors over time is an arduous task. Intellectuals and academics, government and authorities were not the only ones to formulate their views on capoeira.

Yet only very occasionally can we get a glimpse of what nineteenth-century slave or free practitioners thought about their art. Nevertheless their views and practices clearly had an impact on the way authorities or intellectuals reflected on capoeira, and we have therefore to consider the problem of their interaction. Circularity undeniably existed between these different actors practitioners, authorities, elites, scholars and became stronger — and more visible — during the twentieth century. Although aware of that danger, I still think it is worthwhile to attempt to explain how master narratives on capoeira developed.

My focus in this chapter is therefore on the history of ideologies, with only occasional references to institutions or social backgrounds when necessary. Eurocentric repression The first discourse about capoeira we know of emphatically condemned the practice and implemented every possible means to eradicate it.

First formulated by police officers and politicians, it was taken on board by the ruling elite and the middle class of urban slave owners. The elaboration of this discourse took place in a very specific historical moment and context, namely after the transmigration of the Portuguese court to Brazil, in For almost 14 years Rio de laneiro became the provisional capital of the Portuguese Empire, before converting into the capital of a new empire in the tropics. Until then, capoeira does not — as far as we know — figure in police records, mainly because no police really worth that name existed.

Hired by the town council, they had no legal power of arrest. Hence one of the first measures adopted by the prince regent Joao VI consisted in the establishment of a Police Intendant in Rio, and, subordinated to him, a Royal Police Guard, both replicas of similar institutions in Lisbon, themselves inspired by earlier French models. Among all forms of behaviour considered improper by the elites, capoeira was always considered the most dangerous one for public safety. What is remarkable is rather how this discourse was adapted and survived the political changes of the subsequent period.

Brazilian Independence came in the form of a constitutional monarchy, which recognized civil rights the right to vote, freedom of association, habeas corpus, etc. These rights were enshrined in the Constitution, and granted to all Brazilians, including former slaves — as long as they were born in Brazil and not in Africa. In theory, and if they had the necessary property qualifications, freedmen thus enjoyed political rights although subjected to several restrictions, not being eligible for any office. Slaves were not granted any rights, and were barely mentioned in the founding text of the nation.

In practice, however, not only slaves, but freedmen and even the free poor remained subjected to the arbitrary practices of the police, suffering arrest, summary punishments in the form of whipping, and detention without trial. Adapting the new liberal ideology to a highly stratified slave society that relied on heavy physical coercion to control even the poorer segment of its free population represented a major dilemma for Brazilian elites.

Several attempts in the s and s to make police and judicial practice conform to liberal principles were met with strong opposition from conservative elites and civil servants alike and ultimately failed. On the other side, the criminalization of cultural practices such as capoeira was not consistent with liberal ideology, and legislators therefore found it difficult to formally outlaw its practice. This contradiction resulted in the curious situation whereby capoeira was neither included in the Criminal Code of the Empire nor any other law voted by parliament, and not even the municipal laws of the city of Rio.

The discourse advocating outright repression of capoeira was so hegemonic during most of the nineteenth century, that even scholars genuinely committed to the study of popular culture such as Silvio Romero despised the art and only lamented that: Capoeira was now seen as representing a hideous practice reflecting lower class, and particularly African, barbarism.

It became therefore again paramount to eliminate this obstacle to progress. They therefore had few scruples in formally outlawing capoeira. The first three articles criminalized idleness; the last three exclusively dealt with capoeira see Chapter 3. Although now finally enshrined in the Criminal Code of the Republic, the discourse of repression started to be challenged by a growing numbers of middle-class and elite individuals.

Even though no longer hegemonic after the s, the longevity of that discourse had long lasting effects. The association of capoeira with the underworld of vagrancy, crime and marginality was not completely inaccurate; it nevertheless did not take into account the insertion of many, if not most capoeiras in the world of labour see Chapters 3 and 4. The very meaning of what constituted a nation evolved substantially since the late eighteenth century, when it only meant people borne by the same mother or, by extension, from similar ancestry.

The term was even used to denote opposition to civilized or Christian peoples, and that is why European colonial sources so frequently refer to African nations. These changes in terminology reflect shifts in emphasis on how the nation was to be defined: The aftermath of independence in Brazil coincided with the establishment of Romanticism as the predominant art movement among the literary elites. The tropical nature of most of the Brazilian territory, which had already impressed colonial writers of European origin, furnished an evergreen theme to define the nation.

Building on the pastoral tropes of the Enlightenment, romantic writers exalted in even stronger colours the Brazilian nature. They founded a core national myth that was to have a long lasting impact on the national imagination. Native Brazilians seemed to provide an outstanding example of a life in harmony with nature. Writers such as Jose de Alencar and Gongalves Dias exploited the edenic motive of the Indian in the Brazilian wilderness. In their work, the native Indian is stylized and romantically transfigured into a medieval knight.

The first literary symbol of Brazilian-ness hence resembled a key character of European romanticism. It is here that we can locate the remote origins of the myth that depicts capoeira as a creation inspired by the Brazilian nature. Intellectuals were by no means the only ones to devise symbols of identity and nationhood. Other social groups had quite different perceptions of the nation. Popular lusophobia might not have been more than a negative way of defining the national character, but it re- emerged later in the century and was always strongly associated with extreme nationalism.

Although sources are not very extensive about popular views of the emerging nation, some documents from mainly urban rebellions suggest that a radical version of liberalism advocated equal rights for citizens of all colours, only excluding the African slaves. Harsh repression, however, drove more inclusive visions of a democratic empire into oblivion or at least limited their wider impact. Even though the resident Portuguese insulted Brazilian patriots in return as cabras goats, dark skinned mulattos , it seems that these rarely adopted African ancestry or even miscegenation as a positive value.

Most, especially the lighter-skinned patriots, preferred to identify instead with the Native Americans. As racial theories became hegemonic in nineteenth-century European science, the racial factor gained more and more weight in the discussions about the national character. Brazilian intellectuals were thus caught in a rather unenviable dilemma: Hence most appraisals after the s tended to lament the racial handicap of Brazilians whose ancestors were, in their majority, Africans or Indians.

They all shared, unsurprisingly, the belief in white superiority, but clashed over crucial aspects such as the meaning of miscegenation. Polygenic approaches tended to dismiss mestizos as degenerate or even sterile mulato is derived from mule! Some Brazilian scholars very skilfully picked out the aspects of different theories that suited them most, and developed their own conceptions.

At the time of its conception, the ideology of whitening therefore seemed to offer an alternative to the absolute pessimism that haunted so many Brazilian intellectuals during the period It is precisely because ideologies enhancing the positive values of miscegenation have been historically associated with the whitening ideology promoting an assimilationist model that black movements tend to dismiss all of them as a white strategy of ethnocide. Since the creation of the Historical and Geographical Institute, in , a more historicist tradition had gained a foothold in Brazil.

The Germanophile Silvio Romero, author of the first History of Brazilian Literature was a precursor in that direction.

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Although he initially almost despaired over the racial handicap of Brazilians and even dismissed the dominant Iberian stock as inferior when compared to the Germanic sub-types, he considered the possibility of a new, original mestigo type, a result of race mixture and the environment. Not only did he advocate the study of the customs of the Brazilian people, but also made important contributions towards that end, in particular in the field of popular poetry, following the German romantic model of searching cultural roots of the nation in its folklore.

His method consisted in identifying the original elements that the mestigo combined. Euclides da Cunha made a further, extremely influential contribution in his book Rebellion in the Backlands , where he suggested that the Brazilian mestigo had already developed specific characteristics. Although initially da Cunha wanted to prove the degeneration of the mestigo, he became so impressed with the heroic resistance of the charismatic leader and his supporters, that he concluded the isolation of the semiarid sertao backlands did have positive effects on the racial type which was rather in contradiction to his theoretical assumptions.

Da Cunha was part of a whole generation of writers, such as Capistrano de Abreu and Coelho Neto, who stigmatized the cities as Europeanized whereas the true Brazil was to be found in the vast interior. In summary, towards the end of the nineteenth century, the mestigo provided intellectuals searching for the national character with a new subject on which to graft their theories.

Racial theories also shaped immigration policies. Black labourers from Africa or North America were clearly undesirable, and even Asians Chinese were initially rejected, though a quarter of a million Japanese were later allowed to enter the country. This shift in policy reflects not only a lack of firm consensus among the elites, but also an important change in the ways foreign migrants were perceived and integrated. As enthusiasm for European workers was tamed by their labour activism or their unwillingness to assimilate, intellectuals and politicians increasingly worried about the consequences of massive immigration for nation building and the need to construct a Brazilian identity not based on the emulation of European models or a linear process of whitening.

Popular resentment against the favouritism Portuguese male migrants commonly enjoyed when applying for jobs or competing for Brazilian women expressed itself in the revival of the anti-Portuguese imagery in the independence period. The so-called Jacobins, a radical nationalist, pro-republican movement in the s and s, built upon these resentments to gather support in Rio de Janeiro, the city with the largest Portuguese community.

Placido de Abreu, a Portuguese-born writer and bohemian, a practitioner of capoeira himself, denied that it had African or Indigenous origins: Contrary to Romero who prefaced his work , Mello Moraes disapproved of large-scale European immigration and the Europeanization of customs heralded by the elite as the only means to progress. He advocated that urban popular culture, in particular the Catholic festivals, constituted the privileged site where the Brazilian national character had developed.

As Leticia Reis has shown, Mello Moraes needed to invert the basic chronology of capoeira development in order to support his argument. The nationalist discourse was already influencing perceptions and structuring interpretations of capoeira, misrepresenting a black slave practice as a mestizo art. In the final confrontation between the two rival males, which symbolizes the wider conflict between Portuguese and Afro-Brazilians, both make use of their national fighting art: As I hope to have made clear, the shifting significance of mestigo identities in the construction of a Brazilian national discourse affected the meaning of capoeira from the last quarter of the nineteenth century onwards.

As national identities were constructed more and more around popular cultural manifestations, and elites became increasingly aware that the only observable homogeneity of the Brazilian people consisted in an immense array of mixtures, the attitude towards capoeira evolved substantially.

At the very moment capoeira was being eradicated from the streets of Rio de Janeiro by ruthless repression, the absolute criminalization of its practice was increasingly questioned by a growing number of middle-class people. They adopted a more benevolent even if still highly ambivalent attitude towards the art, because they considered it a possible tool in the construction of Brazilian identity. Yet for capoeira to become a marker of Brazilian-ness, its slave origins had to be hidden and its mestigo character emphasized.

The search for a Brazilian gymnastics: Since drafted conscripts were now fighting in large scale wars, strategists underlined the importance of national recruits — and therefore the entire male population — being well trained. Early attempts to develop specifically national methods of training began in Europe during the early nineteenth century. In Denmark Franz Nachtegall had founded the Military Institute of Gymnastics in ; physical education became a compulsory discipline in Danish schools as early as In Germany Friedrich Ludwig Jahn built the first gymnastics ground Turnplatz in , initiating the movement of Gymnastics Associations Turnvereine.

Ever since, gymnastics has been seen as a means to improve the male fitness of the nation and therefore its martial capacity. For that reason the military have always been associated with the search for national gymnastics. Ju-jitsu masters started to travel around the world to show their skills and challenge local fighters. As we are going to see in Chapter 5, this resulted in an intense interaction between Eastern and Western martial arts. For Brazilian nationalists, these developments confirmed the urgency to identify and develop a national fighting art, and once again they turned their attention towards capoeira.

In one of the first extensive reports on capoeira published in , the anonymous author L. Created by the inventive spirit of the mestizo, because capoeira is neither Portuguese nor black, [but] mulatto, cafusa [mixture of Indian and black] and mameluca [mixture of Indian and white], that is, cross-breed, mestigo; the mestigo having annexed, through atavistic principles and with intelligent adaptation, the razor of the fadista from the Mouraria [popular, former Moorish neighbourhood] of Fisbon, some danced and simian [monkey-like] movements of the African, and, above all, the dexterity, the feline lightness of the Indian in the quick jumps from one side to the other and forwards, weightless and unpredictable, and surprisingly, as a Royal tiger, backwards, but always facing the enemy.

These discussions among Belle Epoque intellectuals were not merely academic, but reflected wider concerns about nation building which also involved journalists, politicians and the army. During that same year the Brazilian parliament debated conscription again, which army reformers had been asking for since the establishment of the republic, and which was finally adopted in Both popular classes and liberals opposed general conscription. For many, life in the barracks, far from constituting an elevating experience, encouraged sodomy or made conscripts more likely to be cuckolded.

At that stage new military models of masculinity were imported from abroad. The British Boy Scouts founded in became widely popular in Brazil. Only then did military- style training become more fashionable and even acceptable for the sons of the well to do. The humiliating military defeat against Germany in had made the French military keen not only to make gymnastics compulsory in schools but also to have the military involved in its teaching.

According to him, they even considered sending a project to the Brazilian parliament that would establish capoeiragem as a compulsory discipline in state owned institutions and the barracks. Echoing da Cunha he recommended: If you want to cultivate an elegant game, adequate for self-defence, a game of noble dexterity which is not brutal and demeaning, there you have our unsurpassable and invincible capoeira game, a game born from racial and environmental factors which shaped our nascent race.

In that respect eugenics were to race what hygienization was to the culture of the popular classes.

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Perhaps inspired by the already mentioned O. The author, a sportsman, practitioner of Swedish gymnastics, athletics and boxing, departed from earlier nationalist views insofar as he recognized the slave origins of capoeira. According to him, runaway slaves invented the art.

They did not build on previous African traditions, but rather developed it in the intimate contact with nature and whilst resisting their capture: The last sentence became a catchphrase repeated ad infinitum by future generations of capoeiristas. I think Burlamaqui should be given credit for inventing the powerful myth of runaway slaves creating capoeira in the wilderness.

His proposal, once more reflected the idea that capoeira, in order to serve national ideals, had to be hygienized, adapted, and reformed. Yet for the first time, someone had developed a concrete training method based on these nationalist principles. After racial theories came increasingly under attack in US academia. That change of paradigm had a profound impact on Brazil, in particular through the work of Gilberto Freyre , who studied anthropology with Boas. His classic essay on the genesis of Brazilian society, The Masters and Slaves valorized, for the first time, the biological miscegenation of white masters and enslaved Indians and Africans.

According to him, a parallel process of cultural hybridization had taken place in Brazil, resulting in the adoption of Indian and African elements in Brazilian culture. Later critics have pointed out that his writings are rather ambiguous and still contain reminiscences of racial ideology. Widely acclaimed in the s, his work remained very influential throughout the twentieth century. For instance, since Freyre the metaphor of biological miscegenation has been frequently used to describe cultural processes of hybridization.

Furthermore, his work was paramount to formulate the myth of racial democracy, a device through which subsequent Brazilian governments avoided any discussion of the racial discrimination occurring in the country. Major political change also altered the ways brasilidade was discussed and promoted.


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The revolution of profoundly restructured the whole field of culture. From now on the state was to have an important, if not decisive role in cultural management. Cultural nationalism became hegemonic during the period and has remained influential at state level ever since. Traditionalists eager to sponsor the neo-colonial style clashed with modernists promoting disciples of Le Corbusier. More importantly, the Constitution instituted compulsory physical education in all schools.

All new teachers, even civilians, were enrolled at the School of Physical Education of the Army. An army officer was appointed chief of the new Division of Physical Education DEF , who imposed the teaching of the French method throughout the country. Ever since, physical education in Brazil has been closely associated with the military. During many years he tried to convince his superiors that capoeira should become the Brazilian gymnastics.

One of the reasons was that the writings on capoeira from the Bahian School such as Querino and Carneiro analysed below had made clear that capoeira was more than a by-product of colonial exploitation and resistance to slavery in the Brazilian environment, and that it also built on earlier African traditions. This resulted in a slight re-adaptation of the nationalist discourse on capoeira.

Although originally from the blacks negros , capoeiragem was assimilated and developed by the mestizos — mulattos, finding a productive field and new qualities to explore. Yet Brazilian nationalists, in particular sympathizers of European fascism such as Marinho, often clung to these outdated theories. Marinho and many others still reproduced the stereotype of the intelligent and skilful mulatto during subsequent decades: From the inner depths of my being arises a new craving for corporal expression, as if my soul had escaped from centuries of oppression.

I shall no longer be compelled to repeat the typical gestures of cultural affirmation of other nations. I have succeeded in freeing myself from those rhythms that obsessed me, upset the balance of my movements, and suppressed the musicality of my forebears. At last I became aware of my own rhythm, which helped me cast off age-old inhibitions and allowed me to give free rein to my feelings, hopes, thoughts, and ideals!

Now I am free! They are sacrificed for the sake of a homogenous nation created by unspecified ancestors. As we are going to see in Chapter 7, the exaltation of Brazil in capoeira, especially in capoeira Regional circles, has not stopped ever since. With roots in the patriotism of Brazilian independence and the nationalist surge of the First Republic, it developed in particular during the intense nationalist mobilization of the populist regimes and the nationalist indoctrination promoted by the military dictatorship In that respect it is understandable how legitimately shocked they feel when confronted with the competing ethno-nationalist discourse advocating the African character of capoeira.

The search for purity and survivals: Slaves caught playing capoeira in the s and s often displayed markers of their particular ethnic origins, such as hats or feathers. As capoeira in Rio became more creolized, affiliations with particular gangs tended to replace earlier expressions of ethnic identity see Chapter 3. Following Mello Moraes in Rio, he enhanced the folkloric side of capoeira and suggested it ranked equally to other national sports. Querino, an Afro-Brazilian, did not support the dominant racist theories of his time, perhaps an indication that these were less pervasive among non-white Brazilians than some scholars seem to suggest.

The existence of a particularly vibrant Afro-Brazilian community and culture was certainly paramount to the development of a local school of thought that sought to study Bahian religion and culture. He still remained within the paradigms of European racial theories of his time, advocating for instance, that Negroes and Indians, being racially inferior, could not be expected to behave like whites and thus the Criminal Code should not treat them as equals. His commitment to research different aspects of Afro-Bahian culture resulted not only in precursor studies but also influenced a whole generation of younger scholars that continued his research.

His appreciation of the different levels of popular religiosity had a long-lasting impact. According to him, the Brazilian mestizos — many of which adopted the candomble de Angola or de caboclo — had the same intellectual level as the Bantus. If Ramos no longer believed in the racial inferiority of the Negro, he was still convinced that blacks possessed a pre-logical mentality and an inferior culture, which was condemned to disappear. According to Herskovits, a situation of contact between two unequal cultures produced three different outcomes: Acceptance meant the culture of the colonizer was assimilated, resulting in the loss of the former culture.

This, predicted Artur Ramos, was to be the final destination for the black groups in Brazil and elsewhere. Reaction designated the rejection of acculturation, resulting in the maintenance of the original cultures, as expressed in some counter-acculturative movements. Thus a capoeira performance was included in the programme of the Second Afro-Brazilian Congress he organized in Salvador in see Chapter 6. From that moment capoeira started to be recognized as an important expression of ethnic identity, and more particularly as a marker of the Bantu contribution to Afro-Brazilian culture.

The study of Afro-Brazilian culture was profoundly altered from the s onwards with the contribution of the French sociologist Roger Bastide Moving a way from the pathologizing approaches towards Afro-Brazilian religion, Bastide demonstrated the rationality of candomble and trance. His work not only inspired a generation of scholars, but was also very popular among candomble priests.

For Bastide the Nago cult houses were committed to the maintenance of African traditions, whilst the terreiros identified with the Bantus candomble de Angola in Bahia, macumba in Rio de Janeiro were more inclined to accept assimilation and syncretism. We also owe to him a pioneering attempt to compare capoeira with other combat games in the Caribbean. This support certainly helped the most prestigious Nago cult houses to escape police persecution and to obtain wider recognition in local society. The discourse of Nago purity became hegemonic after the s and still lingers on in many quarters in Brazil.

Its implications are however more ambiguous than one might think at first sight; indeed the idea of Nago authenticity can also serve as a strategy of domination. The revaluation of one single African tradition can be instrumental in demoting the culture of the majority of blacks who followed other, in particular more syncretic manifestations, such as the candombles de caboclo. Herskovits commented that he had seen similar combat games in Africa and in different locations in the Americas. Equally ignored were local attempts to revitalize traditional capoeira in Bahia see Chapter 6.

In contrast to nationalist Brazilian discourses, transatlantic approaches towards capoeira have only in recent times conquered greater public space. Because they have been marginalized from academic institutions and mainstream publishing until recently there is not the same density of material or even research. Afrocentric perspectives have provided an important critique of Brazilian nationalist claims regarding the origins and characteristics of capoeira over the last years. Even though they share some of the perspectives of discourses emphasizing the ethnic character of the art, they can also be quite distinct in their conclusions from the narratives we discussed so far.

Some of them actively promote a pan-African agenda which impacts heavily on the way capoeira is perceived and re-appropriated. His journey was part of a wider pursuit. His drawings and comments point out similarities in the material culture dwellings, food, clothes and street festivals in Angola, Cabo Verde, Guine Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Brazil. Neves e Sousa seems to have been particularly impressed by how Angolan Brazil still was.

The epigraph to his work, published later in Angola, stated: He even although rather unconvincingly compared M. Yet at this stage both the scholar and the mestre only considered it a possibility, not an established fact see Chapter 6. Also, in institutional terms Cascudo held a rather marginalized position in the field of Brazilian folklore studies and thus his stance on capoeira origins did initially not have that much impact.

Meanwhile, the idea of Nago purity versus Bantu lack of tradition also came under attack in other quarters. His piece on the Bakongo identified Kongo symbolic patterns in ground-drawings, charms or burial grounds in the African American Diaspora. He shows for instance that the cross, far from constituting an evidence for Christian influence, is also a key element in Kongo cosmology.

The ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik highlighted concrete traits of Angolan culture in Brazil, showing the continuity of rhythmic patterns, instruments, dances and games, among them capoeira. Julio Cesar de Souza Tavares defended the first academic thesis on capoeira at the University of Brasilia, in And, residually, capoeira is a characteristic of Afro-Brazilianness, a non-verbal repertoire of communication, a bodily-gestured channel of communication, a gesticulated bricolage, and the condensation of a bodily knowledge from an African matrix. Brazilian groups, in return, attracted growing interest among black US militants, and as a result contacts were established and links intensified.

Precisely at that time — the s — Capoeira Angola was being revitalized in Brazil see Chapter 7 , and its practitioners started to put forward more explicitly the idea that capoeira, and in particular the Angola style, stood for African identity. That was still a provocative statement in the authoritarian context of the s, making it necessary for the group leader, M.

Moraes, to issue a disclaimer: Defending the African-ness of capoeira does not mean that the GCAP is involved in any movement of segregation, as some people tend to believe, but rather to call the attention of a part of society which still persists in spreading the idea that capoeira is a genuine Brazilian manifestation, without taking into consideration that the African black made a great contribution to our cultural formation.

In contrast with earlier denigrations, Bantu and Angola were now reclaimed as positive symbols, metaphors for tradition. In the United States, an exhibition hosted by the Caribbean Cultural Center in New York in was an important step in that direction. In the Americas everyone practices some aspects of these Central African traditions in their daily lives, but without recognizing these activities as having a Kongo-Angola origin. For example, rumba, tango and samba, to name just three dances, are viewed in their respective countries as national dances.

In reality, these dances should be understood as Central African movement forms shared with the world through their countries. In fact some militants, scholars or capoeira adepts significantly contributed not only to the diffusion of the more traditionalist capoeira Angola style in the United States, but also participated in the elaboration of the angoleiro agenda in organizations such as GCAP. Afrocentric interest in transatlantic links for instance contributed to replace capoeira in its wider context and to rethink anew its relationship with other combat games of the diaspora, usually downplayed or even completely negated by nationalist discourses that insist on its uniqueness and Brazilian-ness.

Robert Farris Thompson, in his otherwise groundbreaking article on black martial arts of the Caribbean, for example asserts that The Kongo presence in the development of Afro-Cuban mani and bambosa in the nineteenth-century dance-battles of Cuban blacks is manifest. According to Fernando Ortiz [. Two men battled to the beat of Kongo-derived drums called yukaf 4 Unfortunately Ortiz never wrote that, since he was convinced that mam came from West Africa.

He only stated that the chants were sometimes in an African language, but usually in Creole and reproduced one African chant whose origin he could not identify. Moreover, Ortiz only described the drums as vertical, cylindric, made of avocado trunk, but did not call them yuka nor ascribed them a Kongo origin. In fact, based on interviews with practitioners and his intimate knowledge of all things Afro-Cuban, the eminent scholar explicitly attributed the origins of the mani combat game to the Ganga, more particularly the Ganga Mam.

Ortiz related that ethnic group to either the Mandinga or the Ewe — in both cases West Africa and clearly not Central Africa. Current Cuban anthropology also locates the Ganga in contemporary Sierra Leone. Desch-Obi furthermore affirms that during the nineteenth century capoeira was called engolo in Brazil, and that M. This kind of unsubstantiated statement, not borne out by a any serious evidence, might seem useful to reinforce the point about the Angolan character of capoeira.

Yet in the long run it will be counterproductive, since it contributes to discrediting the Afrocentric approach and hinders a deeper understanding of capoeira history. There are sufficient facts to corroborate the Angolan origins of capoeira — we do not need to invent any. In its most extreme formulation, capoeira thus appears as an entirely African manifestation, taken by Angolan slaves to Brazil, rescued in the s and now spreading among African Americans of the diaspora see the Nardi quote at beginning of this chapter. Needless to say that this clashes frontally with what many Brazilians think about capoeira.

Although these master narratives appear totally incompatible, I would argue that an examination of the issue of creolization in capoeira can provide a middle ground for a more consensual narrative. Just as the Eurocentric or Brazilian nationalist discourses, in opposition to which it tends to define itself, the Afrocentric narrative can equally become one-sided in its approach. It also tends to homogenize the continent and freeze its culture in a pre -modern and non- Western state of authenticity. Culture is perceived in terms of biological analogies and fixed geographical locations, paradoxically reproducing the same underlying grammar of the colonialist discourse.

The negative sign attributed to all things African is inverted, but it runs the risk of reinstating old discourses under the same premises and falling into analogous essentialisms. The extreme Afrocentric narrative depends thus more than it would like to admit on the discourses it wants to reject to maintain its consistency. As culture here also has much to do with identity formations, essentialist views, independently of where they are located, it will tend to be more exclusive than inclusive.

Essentialism of all kinds easily leads to fundamentalism. For the same reason many white supremacists condemned and still condemn miscegenation; fundamentalist Afrocentrics have only contempt for hybridity, perceived as intrinsically negative. If we rethink culture and its science, anthropology, in terms of travel, then the organic, naturalizing bias of the term culture — seen as a rooted body that grows, lives, dies, etc.

Constructed and disputed historicities, sites of displacements, interference, and interaction, come more sharply into view. It is precisely this dialectic of continuity and rupture that is ignored by the fundamentalist Afrocentrics; their emphasis is always on the continuities. This view reposes on outdated diffusionism and a reified view of culture. A number of other discourses intersect with them thus contributing to complicate further the analysis of competing narratives.

Conflicts regarding the history of capoeira also reflect struggles over regional pro-eminence with in Brazil. During the nineteenth century the Northeastern economy based on sugar cane performed less well than the coffee in the Southeast. The gap widened during the twentieth century and resulted in the region being perceived as backward and underdeveloped compared to the South and the Southeast. The economic underperformance was followed by the loss of political influence at federal level. The revolution imposed non-elected governors interventores — often from the South — in states that had formerly claimed national pro-eminence, such as Bahia and Pernambuco.

The loss of regional autonomy encouraged the renaissance of regionalism in the Northeast during the s. The claim to greater authenticity was to a certain extent endorsed by the regime and other opinion makers, and found its way into the set of common assumptions shared by Brazilians. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ.

Abnormal pap tests among women living in a Hispanic migrant farmworker community: A narrative of health literacy. Participants described how they 1 obtained information about getting a Pap test , 2 processed positive and negative reactions following results, 3 understood results and recommended health-promoting behaviors, and 4 communicated and received social support.

Women had disparate reactions and understanding following an abnormal Pap result. Health literacy was a meaningful conceptual framework to understand assets and gaps among women receiving an abnormal Pap test result. Future interventions should incorporate health literacy domains and facilitate patient-provider communications and social support to assist women in decision-making and health-promoting behaviors, ultimately decreasing cancer disparities.

Is there a language divide in pap test use? We sought to determine whether primary language use, measured by language of interview, is associated with disparities in cervical cancer screening. We undertook a secondary data analysis of a pooled sample of the and California Health Interview Surveys. We fit weighted multivariate logit models predicting 3-year Pap test use as a function of language of interview, adjusting for the effects of specified covariates.

Compared with the referent English interview group, women who interviewed in Spanish were 1. In contrast, we observed a significantly reduced risk of screening among women who interviewed in Vietnamese odds ratio [OR] 0. Improved language access could reduce cancer screening disparities, especially in the Asian immigrant community. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test.

Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer. Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the use of the Pap smear screening method for detection of precancerous lesions. All women who visited the outpatient gynecology clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, over 1 year for different clinical problems were recruited for the study.

A total of women who were sexually active and over 21 years of age were enrolled in the study. A clinical examination, an examination per speculum, and a vaginal examination were performed and a history taken for all women. A Pap smear was used for all women to screen for cervical cancer. All data were recorded using a predetermined pro forma.

Women who had visible malignant cervical lesions were excluded from the study.

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Most women were in the age range of 30—50 years and multiparous. Vaginal discharge was the most common complaint, occurring in An irregular menstrual cycle was the complaint of The Pap smear test of The test was negative for malignancy in Women with an abnormal Pap test should undergo a colposcopy, and those with abnormal colposcopy findings should be advised to undergo a biopsy. Cervical cancer has declined in the U. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.

Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association.

Among sexually active women, Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area.

When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with Pap test use among North Korean refugees. Lack of medical care in North Korea and vulnerability to human trafficking during their migration increase risks of cervical cancer among North Korean refugees.

To better understand factors influencing Pap test use, we conducted a qualitative study of eight North Korean refugees in South Korea. Individual barriers were limited knowledge, lack of perceived need for preventive services, and concerns about costs. Environmental facilitators included having female providers, receiving family support, and free screenings. Refugees' health outlook, including viewing cancers as fatal diseases, hindered seeking Pap tests.

Multi-faceted approaches to address individual and environmental factors in promoting Pap tests are warranted. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with the intention to receive a Pap test among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin living in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional community-based study. We enrolled women aged 30 years and over in the study, from July to January The participants' characteristics, cervical cancer knowledge, Pap test knowledge, attitudes toward cervical cancer, barriers to receiving a Pap test , fatalism, and intention to receive a Pap test , were measured using self-report questionnaires.

Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the variables associated with participants' intentions to receive a Pap test. Vietnamese women with low scores on the measures of cervical cancer knowledge and perceived barriers to receiving a Pap test were more willing to receive the test , as were those with high scores on the measures of Pap test knowledge and fatalism.

Women who received a Pap test in the previous year were more willing to receive a Pap test within the next 3 years. Preventive healthcare for immigrant women should be a focus of nurses. The development of culturally appropriate health education and strategies should enhance their knowledge of Pap tests and reduce perceived barriers to Pap test participation. This study's results can be a reference for nurses who work with immigrant women. Published by Elsevier B. Decision making about Pap test use among Korean immigrant women: Understanding how individuals make decisions about Pap tests concerning their personal values helps health-care providers offer tailored approaches to guide patients' decision making.

Yet research has largely ignored decision making about Pap tests among immigrant women who experience increased risk of cervical cancer. To explore decision making about Pap tests among Korean immigrant women. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using 32 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Korean immigrant women residing in a north-eastern metropolitan area. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive coding. Although most women with positive decisions made their own decisions, some women deferred to their providers, and others made decisions in collaboration with their providers and significant others.

While women making positive decisions tended to consider both barriers to and facilitators of having Pap tests , women making negative decisions predominantly discussed the barriers to having Pap tests , such as modesty and differences between the South Korean and US health-care systems. The women's reflections on their decisions differed regarding their Pap test decisions. Women's desired roles in the decision-making process and reflection on their decision outcome appeared to vary, although most participants with positive decisions made their own decisions and were satisfied with their decisions.

Future research should conduct longitudinal, quantitative studies to test our findings regarding decision-making processes and outcomes about Pap tests. The findings should be incorporated into cervical cancer screening practices to fulfil the unmet needs of immigrant women in patient-provider communication and to facilitate women's decision making about Pap tests. To examine whether disability disparities in Pap test rates have diminished over time, this study analyzed National Health Interview Survey responses from selected years between and from women aged years without histories of cervical cancer or hysterectomy.

Seven chronic disability types were identified using self-reported functional impairments or participation limitations. Self-reported Pap testing within the previous 3 years was studied. Bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables were conducted in Rates of all chronic disability types increased over time. Bivariable analyses found statistically significantly lower rates of Pap testing for women with disability compared with nondisabled women. Multivariable analyses failed to find consistent evidence of lower Pap test rates among women across disability types compared with nondisabled women.

In , the AOR for reporting Pap testing for women noting the most severe movement difficulty compared with nondisabled women was 0. However, the AOR for this disability type varied over time. Little has changed over time in Pap test rates for all women. Women with certain disabilities continue to experience disparities compared with nondisabled women in receipt of this important screening test.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to examine women's beliefs about cervical cancer and the Pap test in Chilean women. The questionnaire, developed following the guidelines by Robert de Vellis, is based on the Health Belief Model. The content validity index was 0. A cross-sectional design was implemented to validate the questionnaire. The sample included women recruited from a women's healthcare center in Santiago, Chile.

After six models were computed, the questionnaire was reduced from 53 to 28 items. The unexpected salient factor "need to have a Pap test " was found as part of the susceptibility domain proposed in the initial questionnaire. This finding is an important topic for future research.

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It was concluded that the CPC questionnaire will have important implications on research, education, and administration across disciplines. Nursing curricula and healthcare providers must stress the importance and reinforce the importance of prevention of cervical cancer and regular Pap test screenings. A Shandon Pap Spin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study. Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear.

Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Split sample design was used in 1, women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for Pap Spin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1, women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the Pap Spin technique.

Follow up histological diagnoses for women were obtained from both study arms following abnormal cytology cases. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and Pap Spin tests in both study arms were compared. In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US atypical cells undetermined significance: A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and Pap Spin tests was In the direct to vial group Pap Spin sensitivity was The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant.

Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran. Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran Iran.

This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged years. Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level of both wives and husbands.

The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends.

The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing. Despite the established role of the Pap smear test PST in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan.

Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices KAP of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST.

A total of Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

Since then, monumental changes have occurred. The objectives of this study were 1 to estimate the total annual Pap tests performed in the US based on recent NHIS surveys, and 2 to estimate the potential change in the total annual Pap volume produced by changing demographics, reduced screening frequency, HPV testing , and the HPV vaccine.

In the NHIS and NHIS , women were asked to report the frequency of their Pap tests for the 6 years prior to the interview and to report whether they had abnormal findings. The results were stratified by age, and the total national volume was then extrapolated from a similarly stratified US census. The projected increase of total Pap tests for the next 25 years was determined by using the projected census data. Therefore, despite an expected increase in the population of women eligible for Pap tests , the total number will likely decrease substantially in the future.

A self-administered questionnaire covering demographic details, knowledge relating to human papilloma virus HPV 8 items , cervical cancer 4 items and the Pap smear 6 items was employed. Responses were coded as "True, False and Don't Know". Mean and standard deviation SD for correct answers and levels of knowledge were determined.

Based on religion, transmission of HPV via pregnancy, HPV related diseases except CC and preventive measures except condom use and oral contraceptives showed significant differences. This study emphasizes the lack of awareness with regard to HPV, CC and screening with pap smear even among health professionals. Hence, regular health campaigns are essential to reduce the disease burden. Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants.

A sample of low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test , embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior.

In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a regular screening program. Many studies have reported a large number of barriers that women had for the first time, but this study decided to find other barriers for the second time pap smear. In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and expressed through conventional content analysis in the form of constant comparison.

Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: Personal barriers to getting the second Pap test were: Perceived social barriers to getting the second Pap test with two sub-themes included social supports and abstract norms. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings.

A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap cell sample directly to glass slide , whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method.

Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of patients, were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population age 25— From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned.

Methods From the target population, women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. The coverage over 36 months was The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test 1. Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, pap tests , and cervical cancer between US and Peruvian women. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus HPV , HPV vaccine, Pap tests , and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women. A convenience sample of US women in Augusta, GA, and Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed or item questionnaires, respectively. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses.

Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women. Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria.

Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja.

This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis.

Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better P Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods.

Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus HIV -positive women during the late antiretroviral era.

Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between and Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression.

AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1, screened, patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, had an intact cervix. Four had AGC at enrollment. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval.

The health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer and their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters: This study aimed to determine the awareness and health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and the factors influencing this intention. The six health-beliefs variables related to preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, awareness of the importance of cervical cancer prevention methods, and the intention to recommend the Pap test to daughters were investigated.

The impacts of these health beliefs of the mothers and the sociodemographic factors influencing their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Almost one-quarter Conclusions The mothers perceived HPV vaccination as the most important of the five methods. The frequency of having pap -smear tests among women between years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge.

To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test , and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who k new of the Pap smear test.

Data was analysed using SPSS Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p Pap smear test before and Raising awareness would prove beneficial. The study reveals HPV prevalence rate of These results are in agreement to many published national and international studies [12,13,14].

The study results also indicate lower sensitivity and higher specificity of Pap smear in detecting HPV infection, however it still remains the most important practicably available test in early detection of cervical carcinoma. Demographic data included age, nature of the Pap smear abnormality, gravidity, parity, occupation and education level, smoking history, previous history of abnormal smears, colposcopic examination and treatment, and current method of contraception. The women were asked to rate their level of concern over their Pap smear abnormality, from 0 not concerned to 10 very concerned.

Women's knowledge regarding the role of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the rationale behind the use of HPV testing was assessed by the clinic nurse as being minimal, moderate, or good, as defined by pre-specified criteria. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify significant demographic factors associated with the women's preference for incorporation of HPV testing in their follow-up.

All P values less than. Effects of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory and implementation intentions on first and second pap test practice in Iran. Few Iranian women take the Papanicolaou test despite its important role in preventing cervical cancer. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory PMT variables and implementation intentions in the first and second Pap test practice among Iranian women.

In this quasi-randomized controlled trial, women who were referred to 30 primary health care clinics in Tehran were randomly selected. PMT variables and Pap test practice were measured at baseline and again after 3 and 15 months. The 4-week educational intervention program was conducted for the intervention group. Following the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, and behavior intention variables were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group ptheory-based framework for developing educational interventions regarding Pap test practice in Iran.

Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test. Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula.

Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Pap smear using Ayre spatula in and with plastic narrow long tip Szalay spatula in clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in and using Ayre spatula in women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used.

Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears 94 of vs. Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample. The non-participation to cervical screening is the major determinant in the risk of mortality due to cervical cancer. The cultural or economic barriers for performing screening by Pap test are numerous; one of the most frequent is the refusal of gynaecological examination. The HPV HR testing has a high sensibility to detect high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia CIN and a satisfactory specificity after years old.

The principal objective of this study was to compare the participation rates in women years old who did not perform a Pap test after a first individual invitation, either when an HPV HR auto- test was offered to be performed at home or a second invitation to Pap test was sent. We also evaluated the quality of the two tests , the positive results obtained by age groups and the following histological type of lesions diagnosed in the women with positive results.

The study included 9, women, years old, who did not realized a Pap-test during the 2 previous years and who did not respond at a first individual invitation. These non-responders were randomized into two groups: In women years the participation to the second invitation to Pap test was significantly lower 7. Development of an instrument based on the protection motivation theory to measure factors influencing women's intention to first pap test practice. Given that there are many Iranian women who have never had a Pap smear, this study was designed to develop and validate a measurement tool based on the Protection Motivation Theory to assess factors influencing the Iranian women's intention to perform first Pap testing.

A item questionnaire was developed. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a item with seven factors questionnaire perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protection motivation or intention that jointly accounted for Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the data. Internal consistency range 0. This study showed that the designed instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring the factors influencing the women's intention to perform their first Pap testing.

Cervical cancer is known as one of the most prevalent types of cancers and a major public health problem in developing countries which can be detected by Pap test , prevented, and treated. Despite the effective role of Pap test in decreasing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer, it is still one the most common causes of cancer-related deaths among women, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of educational interventions implemented by health volunteers based on protection motivation theory PMT on promoting Pap test use among women.

This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 health volunteers and women. The study participants were divided into an intervention and a control group. Data were collected using a valid self-reported questionnaire including demographic variables and PMT constructs which was completed by both groups before and 2 months after the intervention.

Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 19 and were analyzed using Chi-square test , independent T- test , and descriptive statistical methods. P Pap test use also increased by about This study showed a significant positive relationship between PMT-based training and Pap test use. The results also revealed the successful contribution of health volunteers to training cervical cancer screening. Thus, training interventions based on PMT are suggested to be designed and implemented and health volunteers are recommended to be employed for educational.

Some unique barriers to screening in this population are specific to Pap tests. Introduction of self-collected frontal i. This study elucidates cervical cancer screening preferences among TM individuals. Provider-collected frontal HPV swab acceptability was also explored. Participants perceived self- and provider-collected frontal HPV swabs to be less invasive, provoke less gender discordance, and promote a greater sense of agency compared to Pap tests.

However, some participants expressed concern about HPV swab accuracy and, regarding the self-collected swab, discomfort about the need to engage with genitals they may not want to acknowledge. Individuals who reported positive provider relationships found Pap tests and provider-collected frontal swabs more acceptable than those who did not.

Frontal HPV swabs have the potential to promote regular cervical cancer screening among TM individuals and to narrow screening disparities. Work is ongoing to establish swab accuracy and develop shared decision-making tools. Full Text Available The majority of the women of the world were affected by the disease of cervical cancer. As a result of this disease, their death rate was increase as hasty level. Hence so many number of research people was focused this notion as their research interest and also they have done so many number of solutions for finding this cancer by using some image processing technique and achieved a good results only in advanced and high cost techniques of LBC, biopsy or Colposcopy test Images.

Therefore the reason, the authors have chosen this problem and also did not only to find whether the patient is affected by a cancer or not. In addition to the patient was affected by this cancer means and also to identify which severity stage of this disease the patient could be live. Then this work has done in based on the images of low cost pap smear screening test by using various image processing techniques with the help of Computerized Image Processing Software Interactive Data Language IDL-Image Processing Language.

Thus the final reports would be very useful to the pathologists for further analysis. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus HPV genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou Pap smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August through August at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor.

Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus HPV prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed.

Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: Results Of the participants, Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling adjusted OR 0.

The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling Rome, March 30, ; Convegno: Roma, 30 marzo The reports present the development of the test , its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer.

The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine. However, most APECs are unable to express P fimbriae even when they are grown under conditions that favor P fimbrial expression. This failure can be explained by the complete absence of the pap operon or the presence of an incomplete pap operon in Pap -negative APEC strains.

In the present study, we analyzed the pap operon, specifically the pap A gene that encodes the major fimbrial shaft, to better understand the pap gene cluster at the genetic level. Using multiplex PCR to probe for allelic variants of pap A, we sought to determine if the low prevalence of pap A among APEC was related to genetic heterogeneity of the gene itself. Finally, we sequenced the ' pap A region' from two pap A-negative strains, both of which contain all the other genes of the pap operon. Interestingly, both strains had an 11,bp contig interruptingpapA at the bp position.

This contig harbored a streptomycin resistance gene and a classic Tn10 transposon containing the genes that confer tetracycline resistance. It is likely that transposons bearing antibiotic resistance genes have inserted within pap gene cluster of some APEC strains, and such genetic events may have been selected for by antibiotic use. Pap and HPV Testing. Natural history of human papillomavirus infections, cytologic and histologic abnormalities, and cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America ; Biochemical characterization of the triticale Ts PAP 1, a new type of plant prolyl aminopeptidase, and its impact on proline content and flowering time in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

Therefore, we aimed to obtain and biochemically characterize the Ts PAP 1 protein. The recombinant Ts PAP 1 protein was received through heterologous expression of the Ts PAP 1 coding sequence in a bacterial expression system and purified with affinity chromatography. Among the peptides tested , the most preferred were di- and tripeptides, especially those with glycine in the Y position.

The use of diagnostic inhibitors indicated that Ts PAP 1 is a serine peptidase; however, further characterization revealed that the SH residues are also important for maintaining its activity. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines accumulated more proline, flowered an average of 3. Our paper is the first to describe the biochemical properties of a novel monomeric plant PAP and contributes to the functional characterization of PAP proteins in plants. The research presents different configurations of microfluidic mixers made from polydimethylsiloxane PDMS fabricated using an improved, low-cost print-and-peel PAP method.

Processes, such as mixing, operated in the micro scale allow decreased equipment size-to-production capacity ratio and decreased energy consumption per unit product. The flows were observed and images were taken using a light microscope. From the relationship between color intensity and concentration, the mixing indices were calculated and found to be 0. From the cost analysis, the cost of the device fabricated in this study is a hundred-fold less than expenses from standard fabrication procedures.

Hence, the fabricated device provides an alternative for micromixers produced from expensive and conventional lithographic methods.

Product details

Additional collection devices used in conjunction with the SurePath Liquid-Based Pap Test broom device do not enhance diagnostic utility. Here we determine if use of additional collection devices enhance the diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap for gynecologic cytology. Methods After informed consent, 37 women ages 18—56 receiving their routine cervical examinations were randomized into four experimental groups. Each group was first sampled with the SurePath broom then immediately re-sampled with an additional collection device or devices.

Results Examination of SurePath broom-collected cytology yielded the following abnormal diagnoses: Comparison of these diagnoses to those obtained from paired samples using the additional collection devices showed that use of a second and or third device yielded no additional abnormal diagnoses. Conclusions Use of additional collection devices in conjunction with the SurePath broom did not enhance diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap.

A potential but not significant improvement in EC recovery might be seen with the use of three devices. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters PAPs in soil. Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters PAPs into perfluorocarboxylic acids PFCAs has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6: To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs , six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated.

It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the di PAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. Therefore reliable measurement of the mono PAPs from a live soil was not achievable. At the end of incubation of day , the major degradation products of 6: The primary product of 8: The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances PFASs, including 6: The apparent DT50 values of 6: Escherichia coli is the most common etiologic factor of urinary tract infection, which its most important virulence factor is P fimbriae.

This study aims to identify pap C and pap G genes and to evaluate antibiotic resistance level in the isolated E. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 samples were collected from patients with urinary tract infection and after isolation of bacteria and DNA extraction, antibiotic susceptibility tests was performed by disc diffusion method using related antibiotics. Statistical data were analyzed using descriptive t- test. The results of the present study showed that pap C and pap GI genes are the most common Pap fimbriae adhesion-encoding genes in E.

The difference between the results of this study with those of other studies is due to geographic diversity. Escherichia coli; Adhesion pap , Disk diffusion antimicrobial tests ; Multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. Test beam results obtained with the Q4 prototype. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength.

It has been shown Hoffmann that pencil-and-paper tests , when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test , that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup.

The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these.

The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October to September at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier.

Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5 percent. The mean age of the women was 44 8. Colposcopic findings were normal in 66 46 percent women, while 77 54 percent had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62 In the remaining 95 There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis.

However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak. ThinPrep Pap -smear and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in reproductive-aged Thai women. To estimate the incidence of abnormal cervical cytology by ThinPrep Pap-tests and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN in young adult reproductive-aged Thai women. A total of women distributed in all regions of Thailand were monitored from through Women were screened for abnormal cervical cytology using the ThinPrep method every 6 months. Interpretation of cervical cytology was based on the Bethesda system, version Women who had the ThinPrep Pap results as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse underwent colposcopic examination.

The ThinPrep and all cervical tissue samples obtained from diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were analyzed and reviewed by Covance Central Laboratory Service, Inc. The cumulative incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-tests was as follows: No comparable data is available. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital. Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital.

The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on Bethesda system. This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years January to June All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included. A total of cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.

Epithelial cell abnormalities 0. Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries.

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